Find the perfect Ivar Kreuger stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from 50 premium Ivar Kreuger of the highest quality. März Ivar Kreuger wird in Kalmar/Schweden geboren. schließt er mit Bestnoten sein Studium zum Bauingenieur ab. Er leitet in Südafrika als. Ivar Kreuger war der Gründer der Svenska Tändsticks AB und die zentrale Figur im europäischen Zündwarenmonopol, ein europäischer Tycoon. Im Jahr gründete er die Firma Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, die noch heute existiert.
Vergessene Gründer: Aufstieg und Fall großer Unternehmer: Ivar Kreuger: Finanzgenie und SchurkeMithilfe des Zündholzmonopols begründete der schwedische Industrielle Ivar Kreuger sein Imperium. Sein Selbstmord schockierte die. Ivar Kreuger war der Gründer der Svenska Tändsticks AB und die zentrale Figur im europäischen Zündwarenmonopol, ein europäischer Tycoon. Im Jahr gründete er die Firma Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, die noch heute existiert. Find the perfect Ivar Kreuger stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from 50 premium Ivar Kreuger of the highest quality.
Ivar Kreuger Navigation menu Videomlbgearshop.com Film Easy Rider Inc. User Reviews. Karin Bökman 3 episodes, Krister Henriksson This evolved Ebrietas time and now IMS Vintage Photo project is a company of its own with offices in Reykjavik, iceland and Riga Latvia. And once again, financial innovation is moving faster than rules can keep up with it, which can lead to disastrous speculative excesses. Ivar Kreuger war der Gründer der Svenska Tändsticks AB und die zentrale Figur im europäischen Zündwarenmonopol, ein europäischer Tycoon. Im Jahr gründete er die Firma Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, die noch heute existiert. Ivar Kreuger [ˌiːvar ˈkryːgər] (* 2. März in Kalmar, Schweden; † März in Paris) war der Gründer der Svenska Tändsticks AB (STAB) (deutsch. Mithilfe des Zündholzmonopols begründete der schwedische Industrielle Ivar Kreuger sein Imperium. Sein Selbstmord schockierte die. Der Zündholzkönig: Ivar Kreuger, Finanzgenie und Wegbereiter eines Jahrhunderts von Wall-Street-Skandalen: mlbgearshop.com: Otte, Max, Partnoy, Frank: Bücher. One biographer called him a genius and swindler. Stockholm: Fischer. WikiProject Biography. Kraxler4 October UTC. Xbox Games With Gold August 2021 did you so forcefully defend the present version above and now you Pflegeroboter the tags to remain. I have just modified 2 external links on Ivar Kreuger. Yes, some he bought, but most -- he beguiled. Edit page. Johanna Von Gutzeit, two MSc. Language: English. Note: Multiplying historical Einzigen. Many of them have survived to this day. In a more limited sense, manufacturing denotes the fabrication or assembly of components into…. She Ivar Kreuger off the relationship in and moved to Denmark, where she married a Danish engineer with the name Eberth.
Book Description Public Affairs, Condition: Brand New. In Stock. Seller Inventory x Items related to The Match King: Ivar Kreuger, The Financial Genius The Match King: Ivar Kreuger, The Financial Genius Behind a Century of Wall Street Scandals.
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Edit Cast Series cast summary: Johan Rabaeus Ivar Kreuger 3 episodes, Regina Lund Tuula 3 episodes, Sven Wollter Häradshövding Wallenberg 3 episodes, Maria Kulle Karin Bökman 3 episodes, Krister Henriksson Krister Littorin 3 episodes, Peter Schildt Jacob Wallenberg 3 episodes, Göran Forsmark Advokat Stenbeck 3 episodes, Niklas Falk Gert Palmkrantz 3 episodes, Ingvar Hirdwall Statsminister Ekman 3 episodes, Björn Granath Översten 3 episodes, Lars-Erik Berenett Tor Bonnier 2 episodes, Sverre Anker Ousdal Anders Jordal 2 episodes, Gunilla Nyroos Fröken Karlsson 2 episodes, Pia Johansson Louise Palmkrantz 2 episodes, Gerd Hegnell Finansminister Hamrin 2 episodes, Gösta Bredefeldt Browald 2 episodes, Christer Fant Börsutroparen 2 episodes, Anders Ahlbom Rosendahl Dreyfuss 2 episodes, Katia Caballero Jeanette 2 episodes, Rolf Larsson Hägglöf 2 episodes, Bengt Järnblad Jacobsson 2 episodes, Lennart R.
Edit Storyline Ivar Kreuger was a businessman who influenced a whole world and whose fate is still shrouded in mystery. User Reviews B, B, BORING!!
Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. The monopoly agreements differed from country to country.
The capital was raised to a large extent through loans from Swedish and American banks, combined with issuing a large amount of participating debentures.
Kreuger also often moved money from one corporation he controlled to another. Kreuger did not limit himself to matches, but gained control of most of the forestry industry in northern Sweden and planned to become head of a cellulose cartel.
He also attempted to create a telephone monopoly in Sweden. After founding the pulp manufacturer SCA , in Kreuger was able to acquire the majority shares in the telephone company Ericsson ; the mining company Boliden gold ; major interests in the ball bearing manufacturer SKF ; the bank Skandinaviska Kreditaktiebolaget and others.
By Kreuger controlled some companies. However, the Stock Market Crash of turned out to be a major factor in exposing his accounting that ultimately proved fatal to both him and his empire.
In the spring of he visited the United States and gave a lecture about the situation in world economics at the Industrial Club of Chicago with the title "The transfer problem and its importance to the United States".
In the same year the total loans made by Swedish banks were barely 4bn SEK. Such schemes had been around for a long time e.
Kreuger financed his activities by selling shares and bonds of his companies as well as through large bank loans, mainly the last two.
The use of debt in addition to equity is called leverage and it magnifies both gains and losses. With respect to selling shares, he invented Dual Class Ownership shares  since he did not want to lose control of his companies.
He called the class of shares with reduced voting power B Shares. One of Kreuger's biographers, Frank Partnoy , called it "an ingenious piece of financial engineering.
In this way Ivar could double the size of his capital, while diluting his control by just a fraction of a percent.
Presently such shares are sometimes called A Shares with the B Shares having more voting power, as is the case with Google for instance where they carry ten times more voting power than the A Shares.
The New York Stock Exchange, for example, allows companies to list dual-class voting shares. Once shares are listed, however, companies are not allowed to reduce the voting rights of the existing shares or issue a new class of superior voting shares.
There is a wide range of dual-class share structures and their use between countries. These bonds gave investors the right to receive annual interest payments of 6.
Finally, these debentures were convertible, which meant that they could be converted into shares. If International Match performed well and the value of the shares increased, investors could switch from the debentures to the more valuable shares.
The convertible feature made these securities particularly attractive: they have both downside protection because in the case of bankruptcy the bond holders were paid before the shareholders and upside potential.
In other words, the best of both worlds. Kreuger invented another financial instrument, which continues to be used and is nowadays known as American Depositary Receipts.
It was part bond, part preferred stock, and part profit sharing option. The certificates enabled investors to gain exposure to a foreign company that had been paying dividends of 25 percent.
It would be backed by the largest private loan to a foreign government i. Germany ever. Even in the midst of the growing panic investors went crazy for the issue and promised to buy 28 million dollars of the new securities.
To retain control of Garanta, Ivar created another innovative financial provision, which meant that during the first four years until October 1, , International Match Corporation had the right to appoint the managing director of Garanta who alone was entitled to sign for the company On or after October 1, , International Match Corporation had the right to acquire 60 percent of the shares at par.
This option term secured both initial control over Garanta and the right to own a majority of Garanta's shares in the future. This means that details of an enterprise do not appear in the parent company's financial statements.
Some of these entities were more or less secret. The associated debt, called "off balance sheet obligations", didn't appear in any financial statements of the companies Ivar controlled other than in summary form, if at all.
He said "it is only customary to consolidate the assets and liabilities of companies in such a balance sheet when a substantial majority of the outstanding shares are owned by the parent company.
Where less than such a majority is owned, the shares are included as investments. Goldman Sachs and Lehman Brothers. The former issued million dollars' worth of complex securities equivalent to about 3.
Lehman issued similar obligations, which immediately rose 30 percent. In spite of the large number of bona fide companies Ivar controlled, he was fundamentally a gambler and often a very lucky one.
He speculated with his personal funds and, especially, with the money of the corporations he controlled. The preceding statement should be seen in light of the fact that Kreuger treated most of his companies as if they were exclusively his personal property.
He frequently transferred funds from one corporation to another with little or no formality. A number of dummy corporations and holding companies e.
Garanta and Continental Investment Corporation helped him to hide what he was doing. He also used others as front men to conceal his actions, e. Towards the end, in , when he frantically gambled with the securities of corporations he controlled in the vain attempt to reverse their falling prices he played the markets himself and had friends help him in the effort to prop up share prices.
His speculations were in foreign currencies, equities and derivatives and he also signed loan agreements with governments not knowing where the funds would be coming from.
For example, the majority stake he had bought in a chemical company in Griesheim , Germany returned 15 times his investment after two years when the company became part of I.
Therefore, he also had to make sure that he had money to pay those dividends. His first sovereign loan went to Poland and when Kreuger signed the agreement he had no idea where the funds would come from.
When he signed the contract he had no idea where he would obtain the huge amount, however he was lucky. Incredibly, the French agreed to pay this sum by April , just before Ivar's first payment to Germany was due.
That payment gave Ivar enough cash to make his first installment. Either he had negotiated a sweetheart rescue deal with Prime Minister Briand, or he was incredibly lucky.
It should be kept in mind that Kreuger controlled around companies, therefore the following list is highly selective. In February , Kreuger turned to Sveriges Riksbank for the second time in his life to support him in raising a large increase in his loans.
At this time his total loans in Swedish banks was estimated to about half of the Swedish reserve currency that had started to give negative effects on the value of the Swedish currency in the international financial market.
At that time Ivar Kreuger was in the United States and was asked to return to Europe for a meeting with the chairman of the Riksbank, Ivar Rooth.
He had left Sweden for the last time on November 23, and returned to Europe on the ship Ile de France , arriving in Paris on March 11, The meeting with Ivar Rooth was scheduled to take place on March 13 or 14 in Berlin.
I have better things to do than argue with you. I did NOT deny you the right to edit. The problem started with your first message telling me that I should include summaries of the edit.
I clicked on checking "new message" -BEFORE saving hours of my work- and lost all my edits and formatting. So while it is not your fault, you are the cause.
You do not understand apparently because you do not want to as I have told you above the same thing. I know how to revert but one cannot revert to unsaved changes, can one?
This means that my change in no way destroys any work done by others if someone choose to put the old text back" shows that you do not even read carefully my comments here.
But you continue to lecture NOT help IMO me. I quoted some administrator about bold changes and DID NOT deny you the right to edit.
Do you think I am an idiot who has no idea what Wikipedia is about? The only reason I will redo my work of yesterday is because I have put in an enormous amount of time.
After that, I will probably not edit anymore here because of petty bureaucratic arguments such as yours.
That's what I meant by "demobilizing". Amazing that you do not understand such simple things but know by heart every rule at Wikipedia. All you need to do is go up on the talk page and see for yourself all the acrimony connected with this topic.
I am an old man and life is too short for such things and you may take the credit, or not I really don't care for having stopped one person contributing substantive material.
I repeat my question: Have YOU edited anything in the article other than deleting whole sections BEFORE talking about it?
I don't think so because I do not see your name among editors. Correct me if I am wrong by linking to your edits.
And by the way, you go on and on and on about the wrongs you accuse me. Does that conform to Wikipedia's etiquette or are you a tad self-righteous?
As I said the ONLY reason I will redo the work is because of the time I spent. After that I will count the editing experience at Wikipedia - thanks to you - as an interesting experience.
No doubt you will not take responsibility for it and it doesn't make a difference to me. Somebody else will have to do the needed improvements as I've had it.
I will add a few details eventually but otherwise I am giving up this thankless task. In the footnotes the link to Called To Account at Google books does not work and I do not know how to fix it.
The link is there and my guess is that there is something wrong with the spacing. It appears several times. And now that you have started to do constructive things here: Why don't you make a real beginning with the most important thing IMO, that is merge and reconcile the sections of Kreuger Crash and Was Ivar Nothing But A Crook.
Lots more needs to be fixed but go ahead and actually do something for Wikipedia, other than making petty arguments, and start by fixing these 2 sections.
Possibly the previous section, i. The end of the Kreuger empire, should also be merged into Was Ivar Nothing But A Crook as well.
Just suggestions. Things I would have done. Gatorinvancouver talk , 20 July UTC. Kraxler says " Who says so? It is pronounced like the word "fleur" in French.
This is all in the above article. So I have done my research, thank you. Skol fir talk , 11 November UTC. And it is a featured article! Maybe you are wrong after all, and the family changed not only the spelling, but the pronunciation as well.
As a historian, I agree with you that some mistakes have been copied so many times that people believe firmly in their correctness, and it is difficult to set things right by digging deep enough into the original sources.
On the other side, it should be possible to get more info on this, especially since there seems to be a Swedish miniseries on Kreuger, and maybe there are original news reels from Kreuger's lifetime Kraxler talk , 15 November UTC.
As you can see, this names only one company. There is another company named a couple of sentences later on, but one cannot assume that the next-named company is the other one split off from the original company.
The names of BOTH off-shoot companines should be included in the sentence I quote above. As somebody who has done a lot of editing of this Wikipedia entry I can only say: Please do the necessary research and edit the article according to your findings.
At present the article is still highly imperfect and needs a lot more work I got turned off because of what I perceived to be petty bureaucratic arguments see above, if you must but something inside me wants to carry on with the work I did and I will eventually.
When I worked on the article I tried to preserve as much as possible of previous entries. It doesn't mean that I am in a position to endorse everything.
This man played an important role in history. Lets try together to make this Wikipedia article a truly well informed summary of his life.
Gatorinvancouver talk , 23 March UTC. Not sure where to put this congrats but here since so many are deeply involved in what is frankly, an awesome article about a sheer phenomenon.
Hope my cleanup hasn't hurt any, Manytexts talk , 3 June UTC. It needs further cleaning up and I haven't had the energy so far.
Particularly, the section The End of the Kreuger empire should be merged with Kreuger The Gambler. The Loans section could also do with some improvements.
It's sort of on my list to do in the future but if you are up to it, why not have a go at it? Gatorinvancouver talk , 3 June UTC.
Following several discussions in past years , these subpages are now deprecated. The comments may be irrelevant or outdated; if so, please feel free to remove this section.
Reference is made to recent research by Dutch Jewish groups into the attitude and behaviour of the same Wallenberg Jacob who enriched himself very grandly on behalf of the Kreuger empire.
Turns out Jacob Wallenberg was the specialist at Stockholms Enskilda Bank in negotiating with Hitler. Wallenberg and his croonies.
Hitler rewarded Mr. Wallenberg with the Iron Cross, plus excellent commissions. Wallenberg and Stenbeck Hugo worked very hard to spread false rumors for months, in anticipation of the planned murder of Kreuger.
Ivar Kreuger is the only known right handed person, who has shot himself using his left hand, which had a stiff trigger finger.
Quite a feat!! Many authors were rewarded handsomely for writing false books, including doctoral thesis, to continue the rumors around Kreuger.
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